What We Do:
Dissertations & Theses
Journal of Objectivity
John Locke's Essay
How and Why We Do It:
Why We Exist
Become A Member
Dr. Carolyn Ray
Dr. Tom Radcliffe
(Have you seen
Enlightenment is in Business!
I've taken the plunge at last: Enlightenment is now a profitable venture.
Capital is now being raised through the sale of memberships, services, and
specialty items. In addition, a Scholarship Fund will accept
tax-deductible donations and will provide financial support for students.
Please see the Membership Packages and Services pages for more details.
What really happened at the Online Conference? Now it can be
revealed. The secret
transcripts should be read with discretion, and quoted in unofficial
biographies for the next 400 years. When you make history, you have to
expect this sort of thing.
Sixth Online Conference Session,
The raw transcript of the
session with Ted O'Connor is here. Discussion is continuing with
both Register and O'Connor, for those who like to watch.
If you have a password already, you may join in.
Fifth Online Conference Session,
The raw transcript of the
session with Bryan Register is ready.
Fourth Online Conference Session,
The raw transcript of the
session with Matt Zwolinski is ready.
Third Online Conference Session,
The raw transcript of
session with Agnes Koos is now available.
Second Online Conference Session,
The raw transcript of the
session with Irfan Khawaja is ready.
First Online Conference Session,
The raw transcript of
session with Dr. Chris Sciabarra is now available. This
transcript will be preserved for use by objective historians, and a
cleaner version (with the names all changed to 'Prof One' and 'Student
Four', etc.) will also be produced for orthodox fanatics.
Instructions for Online Conference, 3/22/2001
- When you leave the conference, kindly close your browser
window! Sign in again when you return.
- Participants: You need a username and password. Write
conference_OF_supersaturated.com to obtain them. Participants should sign in
You will not see your own comments show up immediately; they are sent to
the moderator first. If you are only interested in watching, you may do so
without a password by following the instructions for "Spectators", below.
You are welcome to practice now to make sure you've got it right; please
desist an hour before the conference begins. Kindly close your browser
window when you're done! Sign in when you return.
- Spectators: You do not need a password if you just
want to listen. Go to http://enlightenment.supersaturated.com/onlinecon/speaker.html.
Your browser will reload the page every 7 seconds so that you can watch
the discussion, but you will not be able to submit comments. To do that,
see the instructions for "Participants", above. Please bookmark this
page, and close your browser window when you leave!
- In Case of Emergency: If there are server problems,
and you are unable to access the site during the conference, please go to
http://w2.wetheliving.com/ to get
an emergency update (explanations, anticipated wait time, reschedule,
M.A., has been accepted to the Ph.D. program at the The Union Institute, to
pursue her work in Translation Theory. Fram-Cohen will attempt to show why
and how translation between human languages is possible, using Rand's
theory of concept formation. Her essay, "Reality,
Language, Translation" will be her starting point. The Union Institute
in Cleveland, Ohio, is dedicated to special academic programs for working
adults. Students do most of the academic work off-campus, but they still
work with an advisor and attend seminars in various locations across the
U.S. Great work, Michelle!
New Discussion List, Moderator Needed, 3/18/2001
Carolyn Ray's list, Objectivism and Computer Science, (ocs),
will be resurrected
this spring. The main topic to reopen the list will be Dr. Tom Radcliffe's
Programming. Original archives are being prepared for the web, and
will be public. If you'd like to moderate this list, please write to ocs-moderator_OF_supersaturated.com
to discuss your qualifications.
Attention Graduating Seniors, New Students, 3/18/2001
Graduating this spring? Accepted to a new academic program? Enlightenment
would love to tell the world. Please gladden the hearts of our readers
with your announcement. Include any biographical information you'd like us
to know, such as what you plan to do next, how you use the Enlightenement
resources, what you think of that Rand chick, etc. Take advantage of the
Resumes Section. And don't be modest! Share your
theses, term papers, and class essays with knowledge-hungry eyes. See the
Submission Guidelines for formatting and
The Recent Releases page has had an
erroneous link to Carolyn Ray's "How To Win Arguments" mp3 for
Galt-knows-how-long. Here's the correct link for the
mp3 download. Apologies.
Enlightenment is proud to announce that Walter Foddis, B.Com., B.A.,
has been accepted by the distinguished M.A.-Ph.D Clinical Psychology
Program at the University of Waterloo, in Ontario, Canada, and will begin
study Fall, 2001. Foddis is quite excited about the prospect of pursuing
potentially ground-breaking self-esteem research. With Joanne Wood, he
will have the opportunity to study self-esteem in relation to such factors
as success and failure and how it regulates mood. With Mark Zanna and
Steven Spencer, there is the potential to collaborate in their implicit
self-esteem investigations. It is a promising start to his academic career
in psychology. It is Foddis's hope that his work will help Nathaniel
Branden's theory of self-esteem to gain some serious recognition within
academia. Congratulations, Walter!
Online Conference Schedule, 3/11/2001
All times are Eastern Standard Time:
March 23, Friday,
|| Chris Sciabarra, Objectivism And Academe, 2:30-4:30
|| Irfan Khawaja, Comment on Viable Values, 5:30-?
March 24, Saturday,
|| Agnes Koos, Value and Science, 11:00-1:00
Matt Zwolinski, Force and Flourishing, 2:00-?
March 25, Sunday,
Bryan Register, Facts, 11:00-1:00
Ted O'Connor, Entities, Concepts, and Propositions, 2:00-?
New Article, 3/10/2001
In her first contribution to Enlightenment, Frances Parker considers
the phenomenon of Christianity among African Americans, and argues that
the chief factor responsible for its ubiquitous influence is a
particular brand of fallacious
reasoning, in "African-American
Atheism and the Appeal to Culture". Her novel, Bad Faith,
debuts in May, 2001. Parker is currently working toward her Bachelor of
Arts degree in Philosophy.
New Book, 3/6/2001
Narrative Programming, Tom Radcliffe, Ph.D, P.Eng.,
describes how to look at software engineering from a point of view
gleaned from the structured text (SGML/XML) community. By exploiting the
expressive power of XML and the conceptualist view that the proper
categorization of any part of reality is relative to the purposes of
the subject, he shows how the internal structure of an application can
be understood in terms of--and generated from--the structure of the
documents it is designed to operate on. This work is an example of
"generative programming", which is the next wave in software
A Complete Set, 3/5/2001
Carolyn Ray, Ph.D., has finally added the first essay in the series of
essays from an independent study of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.
in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics", the foundations are accidentally
laid for the case that Aristotle's implicit ethical doctrine is egoism.
Still A Nice Birthday
Consider well what it means that this site has won an award for academic
excellence from an organization that supplies research materials for
students, grade one to post-graduate. We have reason to be proud--and
reason to hope. Let us do the dance of joy!
Oh, yes, and it is my birthday today, which is why it was nice to get the
award just now. More dancing ensues.
New Poetry Section, and a Limited Edition, 3/1/2001
Tom Radcliffe opens the new poetry section with
"Selections from Dawn Music", a book of his own poetry.
Several copies of this limited edition are still available for purchase.
New Treatise, 2/28/2001
We have been waiting a very long time time, but Aristotle has finally
submitted one of his later works, found at the bottom of his sock drawer
on a badly damaged disk. Thanks to Tom's data-retrieval skills, we're able
to present The
Metaphysics. In this treatise, Aristotle finds that Form,
Substance, Matter, and the combination of Form and Matter are all said in
many ways, demonstrating the validity of the method of objectivity and
the truth of conceptualism.
New Treat, 2/28/2001
How beautiful is this? I love it when my own web site surprises me. Did
you know that the Google search engine installed on this site opens the
PDF's and plops out a lovely html version right in the search window? No
need for the nasty Adobe Acrobats to come tumbling out. Click 'Go' now,
then click on 'Text Version'.
Thank you, Google people. May your name be said in
New Essay, 2/27/2001
Neil Haddow, M.A., considers the concept of "homo economicus" in "Economic Man, Minimal
Benevolence, and the Inadequacy of the Preference Satisfaction Theory of
Well-Being", arguing that an idealized version of well-being as
preference satisfaction requires a substantive notion of the good in order
to make sense of the claim that a certain course of action is really in a
person's interest. Haddow is a doctoral student at the University of
Waterloo in Canada.
New Essay, 2/27/2001 Luis
Concepcion has unearthed an early essay, "Distorted Memories
Cause Problems for Locke's Self-Same Theory of Personal Identity", in
which he takes issue with John Locke's theory of
personal identity. Concepcion earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in
Philosophy at the University of South Florida in 1999, and he intends to
begin graduate studies this fall.
New Online Conference Essay, 2/27/2001
Agnes Koos holds a degree in philosophy and history granted by the
University Babes-Bolyai Cluj in Romania. Her first contribution to
and Science" , attempts to justify scientific
approaches in the study of morals as against irrational
approximating, from religious revelation to hermeneutics'
Verstehen. This piece opens the Sociology section, and
will be defended during the Online Conference. It constitutes the second
chapter of Koos's forthcoming book on value theory and value formation,
Horizons of Value Conceptions; chapter 4 of this work will consider
Objectivist value theory along with other epistemological/ethical
theories. Koos lives in Budapest, Hungary.
New Short Story, 2/26/2001
Russell Madden's story, "The Greatest
Good", takes the idea of a military draft to its logical conclusion.
Madden was granted the degree of Master of Arts in Communication Studies
in 1990 by the University of Iowa, and is a prolific freelance writer.
Reminder: March 1st Meeting Application
Please note that applications for participants not presenting scheduled
papers are due midnight Pacific Time, March 1st. The deadline for
critiques of material available on the web has been extended to March
15th. Applications will be accepted after these deadlines, but low-cost
student housing will go first and external housing will be increasingly
difficult to obtain in La Jolla as the summer approaches. For more details
see the Meeting News.
New Academic Essays, 2/16/2001
Will Wilkinson, M.A., currently pursuing his doctoral degree in
Philosophy at the University of Maryland (not UNI as previously
stated--oops!), adds two of his graduate works to our collection:
on Dialectic and Demonstration", Wilkinson addresses the question
whether aristotle's method consists of dialectic, or a combination of
intuitive induction and demonstrative argument.
These are Wilkinson's first contributions to Enlightenment since his 1995
analysis of chapter 2 of Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology.
Nice to see you again, Will!
In "Direct Reference
and the Export Gambit", he considers objections to the direct
reference theory of meaning or "Millianism," arguing that the main
difficulty for Millians lies in explaining the apparent failure of
substitutivity in opaque contexts.
New Academic Essay, 2/16/2001
Jamie Mellway explains the
structure of Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason by means of
an analogy to general logic, arguing that a critique of pure reason is a
special logic concerned with the form of experience rather than the form
of understanding in general. His essay, "The Form of
Experience: The Transcendental Analogy", was accepted this year as
part of his undergraduate Philosophy degree coursework at the University
of Waterloo in Canada.
Online Conference Opening Address, 2/15/2001
Chris Sciabarra, Ph.D,
contributes the opening address at the Online Conference. The text of that
and Academe: The Progress, The Politics, and The Promise", is his
first contribution to Enlightenment. Dr. Sciabarra is Visiting Scholar in
the Department of Politics at New York
Prepare Yourself for the TOC Seminar, 2/15/2001
Shawn Klein, M.A., will lecture on the egoism/altruism debate over
Aristotle's ethical doctrine. If you will attend the TOC Summer Seminar,
you can prepare for his lecture by reading Carolyn Ray's "Egoism in Aristotle's
Nicomachean Ethics", accepted as part of an independent study
on Aristotle's ethics by ancient philosophy professor Dr. Michael Morgan
at Indiana University in 1989 and published here in 2000. Carolyn's
doctoral degree in Philosophy was granted by IU in 1999.
Online Conference Paper, 2/13/2001
Irfan Khawaja's "Comments on
Tara Smith's Viable Values: A Study of Life as the Root and Reward of
Morality," is scheduled to be discussed during the Online
This paper has been on the Enlightenment site since August, and was
delivered at the American Philosophical Association meeting in December.
Irfan is a doctoral candidate in Philosophy at the University of Notre
If you will be submitting essays, resumes, or other materials to
Enlightenment, please be sure to check the updated guidelines. Thank you.
New Resumes Section, 2/12/2001
As promised, the new Resumes Section has opened
with the first resume submission. Resumes should be sent to carolyn_OF_supersaturated.com
for consideration for this section. Please follow essay submission
Conference Essay, 2/11/2001
Ted O'Connor's first essay contribution to Enlightenment is a paper to be
defended during the Online Conference. "Entities,
Concepts, and Propositions" presents a mathematical, computational
framework for modeling some of the functions of conscious agents. Ted will
graduate this year with a Bachelor of Science degree, majoring in Computer
Science and minoring in Japanese. (Ted also hosts Enlightenment's email
lists and provides technical advice for the web site. )
Conference Essay, 2/11/2001
In a paper to be defended during the Online Conference, Matt Zwolinski
explores the connection between the Objectivist conception of political
rights and the initiation of physical force, in "Force and
Flourishing in the Objectivist Political Philosophy",
arguing that, contrary to Objectivist claims, the initiation of force is
neither necessary nor sufficient for the violation of libertarian rights.
Matt is pursuing his doctorate in Philosophy at the University of Arizona. He was granted
the degrees of Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy and Bachelor of Science in
Political Science by Santa Clara
University in 1997. This is Matt's first contribution to the
Enlightenment library. Welcome!
New Essays, 2/11/2001
Ph.D., P.Eng., adds two new essays.
is Poetry?" he argues that the defining characteristic of poetry is
rhythmical structure, and that poetry has a role both as a source of
sensual pleasure and as a medium particularly well suited for capturing
moments of time. This essay is based on Radcliffe's presentation at the
Boston Objectivism Salon in November.
In her essay "Does the Term 'Man' Include All Human Beings?", Carolyn Ray
presents a single argument against using the word 'man' as a generic term,
based on an analysis of the substitution of generic for specific terms. In
this new essay, "Arguments Against Gender Neutral Language,"
Radcliffe examines criticisms of this argument, and then takees on
arguments against gender-neutral language generally. Radcliffe's intent is
to provide a comprehensive list of the strongest arguments possible
against the use of gender-neutral language--specifically with regard to
the generic use of the term 'man'--as well as analyses of these arguments.
This essay is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
participation in the Annual Meeting in La Jolla, where Dr. Radcliffe
intends to present papers with Dr. Ray on quantum mechanics and
Advertise on the site,
The time has come for Enlightenment to sell ad space. If you'd like to
advertise on the site, please send inquiries to carolyn_OF_supersaturated.com. Ads must be
text-only, in the interests of download speed and a peaceful research
environment. Show your support for the very fountainhead of reason and
cultural change: Objectivist scholars in academia.
Enlightenment is back up, as are Carolyn and her computer (which latter
broke just as DNS changes were finally making it through the whole
internet, and then got diagnosed, sent for, backed up, mailed in, lost,
found, repaired, ERASED, mailed back, reconfigured, with unrecoverable
losses on non-Enlightenment stuff).
The online conference was unavoidably delayed, since there was no
place to have it and there was no way to publish the papers to be
delivered. We are rescheduling now, and I will announce the new date here.
The Annual Meeting is still on schedule. If you were unable to submit
your materials due to the DNS or email problems, please submit them before
February 14th (Wednesday) midnight so that I can publish them. All other
dates and deadlines for the Meeting are good.
Where's Objectivity? Still on its way. I'm looking for an Assistant
Editor to help with the next issue. Preference will go to students
enrolled in a philosophy program. Please write to me if you're interested
in adding professional journal experience to your resume.
The current issue and the next will be delivered to subscribers who
have already paid. Thereafter, Objectivity will no longer be
available by subscription, but will instead be published as a periodical
trade paperback that can be ordered from the publisher forever after. This
solves many problems at once for me while ensuring that the articles are
available in print for all eternity. I'll also be able to include more
papers in each issue, and one of the things I'm most interested in doing
is polishing and printing pieces that are now only available on the web
site, as well as including pieces submitted exclusively to the journal.
Subsidized (i.e., free) student issues will still be provided to essay
contest winners. Submissions to the contests should follow the normal
submission guidelines, and should indicate the writer's level of
education and age. (All topics are considered; if you need suggestions,
let me know.)
What else has Enlightenment done since its birth? Check the
Old Releases page and the Latest Releases page.
Papers to submit? Question? Comments? Write to Dr. Carolyn Ray and
Dr. Tom Radcliffe (light_OF_enlightenment.supersaturated.com